Matiar Howlader

Research Interests:  

Micro- and nano-system integration and packaging

 

Nano-bonding of dissimilar materials and individual elements from emerging technologies of electrical, optical, chemical, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), and BioMEMS allows for creating micro- and nano-systems. However, integration technologies to meet this ever-increasing demand for highly integrated systems with improved functionalities are still in their infancy. Nano-bonding can produce interfaces with enhanced performance and reliability for the developed systems. The opportunity for research and development in nano-bonding will provide miniaturized emerging imaging and sensing systems for health and environmental applications.

The Micro- and Nano-Systems Laboratory (MNSL) was established by an infrastructure grant from Canada Foundation for Innovation proposed with collaboration of Professor Jamal Deen, Director of MNSL, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering at McMaster University to address the integration challenges of dissimilar materials in emerging areas of micro- and nano-systems and bio-MEMS for health applications. For this purpose, a unique custom-designed Nano-Bonding and Interconnect System (NBIS) is being developed with a collaboration of Professor Tadatomo Suga of The University of Tokyo. Planar and three-dimensional integration of dissimilar materials, devices and circuits onto a single substrate will be achieved using the NBIS. This is critical to create imaging and sensing system since it allows for the integration of diverse materials and the preservation of biological samples. Also, interconnection of fragile structures such as nanowire-based optical and biophotonic components with accurate alignment and placement will be feasible.

The MNSL also provides supporting systems for processing and characterization of integrated systems. The processing equipment in MNSL allows for dicing, grinding and polishing of wafers, chemical and elemental analysis, defect studies, surface topography and wafer mapping, mechanical and structural testing, nanopattern generation using electron beam lithography, ion implantation, nanoimprinting lithography, electroplating and film deposition. The included characterization equipment are a suite of equipment for high-speed fluorescence and optical characterization, high-speed electro-optical testing, and ultra-wide-band transceivers for imaging systems and a suite of equipment for electrical, photonic and fluidic characterization for sensing systems. The encapsulation and sealing suites include a suite of equipment for depositing polymer films and their characterization.

The infrastructure for MNSL laboratory along with existing facilities at McMaster University meets the equipment need to execute the research in the development of miniaturized, low-cost and easy-to-use prototypes for imaging and sensing systems for health and environmental applications. This will be a collaborative team work among the engineers, scientists and  medical practitioners.

Matiar R Howlader, Ph. D.
Adjunct Assistant Professor
Micro- and Nano-Systems Laboratory (MNSL)
Director of Nanobonding and Packaging Laboratory
ITB-A216
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
McMaster University


Telephone: 1 905 525 9140 extensions 26647 (office),
                                                               20954 (Class 1,000 clean room in ETB-308A),
                                                               20736 (Class 10,000 clean room in ETB-308C),
                                                               20738 (Wet lab in ETB-307)
                                                               20739 and 20740 (Dry lab in ETB-306)

Email:mrhowlader@mail.ece.mcmaster.ca






  Publications:

  Peer Reviewed Articles

50. Y Qin, MMR Howlader, MJ Deen, YM Haddara, and PR Selvaganapathy, "Polymer Integration for Packaging of Implantable Sensors", Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 202 (2014) 758–778.

49. Arif Ul Alam, M. M. R. Howlader, and M. J. Deen, "The Effects of Oxygen Plasma and Humidity on Surface Roughness, Water Contact Angle and Hardness of Silicon, Silicon Dioxide and Glass", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 24 (2014) 035010 (14pp).

48. Arif Ul Alam, M. M. R. Howlader, and M. J. Deen, "Oxygen Plasma and Humidity Dependent Surface Analysis of Silicon, Silicon Dioxide and Glass for Direct Wafer Bonding", ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 2(12) P515-P523 (2013).

47. M. M. R. Howlader, F. Zhang, and M. J. Deen, "Formation of gallium arsenide nanostructures in pyrex glass", Nanotechnology, 24 (2013) 315301 (8pp).

46. M. M. R. Howlader, T. E. Doyle, S. Mohtashami, and J.R. Kish, "Charge transfer and stability of implantable electrodes on flexible substrate", Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 178(1) (2013) 132–139.

45. M. M. R. Howlader, T. E. Doyle, "Low temperature nanointegration for emerging biomedical applications", Microelectron. Reliab., 52(2) (2012) 361−374.

44. S. Mohtashami, M. R. Howlader, and T. E. Doyle, "Comparative Electrochemical Investigation of Pt, Au and Ti Electrodes on Liquid Crystal Polymer for the Application of Neuromuscular Prostheses", ECS Transactions, 35 (16) 23-33 (2011).

43. T. Yu, M. M. R. Howlader, F. Zhang, M. Bakr, "Nanobonding for multi-junction solar cells at room temperature", ECS Transactions, 35 (2) 3-10 (2011).

42. M. M. R. Howlader, F. Zhang, M. J. Deen, T. Suga, and A. Yamauchi, "Surface activated bonding of copper through silicon vias and gold stud bumps at room temperature", Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A 29(2) (2011) 021007 - 021007-7.

41. M. M. R. Howlader, A. Yamauchi and T. Suga, "Surface activation based nano-bonding and interconnection at room temperature",  Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 21(2) (2011) 025009 (10pp).

40. M. M. R. Howlader, F. Zhang, and M. J. Kim, “Annealing temperature-dependent interfacial behavior of silicon wafers bonded using sequential plasma activation”,  IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems Letters, 20(1) (2011) 17-20.

39. M. M. R. Howlader, P. R. Selvaganapathy, M. J. Deen, and T. Suga, "Nanobonding technology towards electronic, fluidic and photonic systems integration", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics on Quantum Electronics, 17(3) (2011) 689 - 703.

38. Jian Sun, Wanguo Liang, Yi Gan, Qingyang Xu, Chang-qing Xu, Matiar Howlader, Koji Nakamura, and Tadashi Kishimoto, "Annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 ridge waveguide for photonics application", Proc. SPIE 7750 77500M (2010).

37. F. Zhang, M. G. Kibria, K. Cormier, and M. M. R. Howlader, "Surface and interface characterization of sequentially plasma activated silicon, silicon dioxide and germanium wafers for low temperature bonding applications", ECS Transactions, 33(4) (2010) 329-338.

36. M. M. R. Howlader and F. Zhang, "Void-free strong bonding of surface activated silicon wafers from room temperature to annealing at 600°C", Thin Solid Films, 519 (2010) 804-808.

35. M. M. R. Howlader and T. Suga, “Comparative annealing effect on silicon wafers bonded in air and UHV for MEMS/microfluidic packaging”, Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS (JM3) 9(4), 041107 (2010).

34. Matiar R. Howlader, “MEMS/microfluidics packaging without heating”, Proc. SPIE, 7592 (2010) 75920H.

33. M. M. R. Howlader, M. G. Kibria, and F. Zhang, “Hybrid plasma bonding of germanium and glass wafers”, Materials Letters, 64 (2010) 1532-1535.

32. M. M. R. Howlader, M. G. Kibria, F. Zhang, and, M. J. Kim, “Hybrid plasma bonding for void-free strong bonded interface of silicon/glass at 200°C”, Talanta, 82 (2010) 508-515.

31. M. M. R. Howlader, G. Kagami, T. H. Lee, J. G. Wang, M. J. Kim, and A. Yamauchi, “Sequential plasma activated bonding mechanism of silicon/silicon wafers”, IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 19(4) (2010) 840-848.

30. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Kaga and T. Suga,“ Investigation of bonding strength and sealing behavior of aluminum/stainless steel bonded at room temperature”, Vacuum 84 (2010) 1334-1340.

29. M. M. R. Howlader, F. Zhang, and M. G. Kibria, “Voids nucleation at sequentially plasma activated silicon/silicon bonded interface”, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 20 (2010) 065012 (10pp).

28. M. G. Kibria, F. Zhang, T. H. Lee, M. J. Kim, and M. M. R. Howlader, “Comprehensive investigation of sequential plasma activated Si/Si bonded interface for nano-integration on wafer scale”, Nanotechnology, 21(13) (2010) 134011.

27. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, F. Zhang, T. H. Lee and M. J. Kim, “Interfacial behavior of surface activated p-GaP/n-GaAs bonded wafers at room temperature”, Electrochemical and Solid State Letters 13 (3) (2010) H61-H65.

26. M. M. R. Howlader, J. G. Wang, and M. J. Kim, “Influence of nitrogen microwave radicals on sequential plasma activated bonding”, Materials Letters 64 (2010) 445-448.

25. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, H. Itoh, T. H. Lee, and M. J. Kim,“ Role of heating on plasma activated silicon wafers bonding”, Journal of Electrochemical Society 156 (11) (2009) H846-H851.

24. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, and M. J. Kim, “A novel bonding method for ionic wafers", IEEE Transactions of Advanced Packaging, 30(4) (2007) 598-604.

23. Matiar R. Howlader, Hironori Itoh, T. Suga, and Moon Kim, “Sequential plasma activated process for silicon direct bonding", ECS Transactions, 3(6) (2006) 191-202.

22. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, and M. J. Kim, “Room temperature bonding of silicon and lithium niobate", Applied Physics Letters 89 (2006) 031914.

21. Tadashi Kaga, Matiar Howlader, and Tadatomo Suga, “Surface-Activated Bonding of Aluminum/Stainless Steel and Its Seal Characteristics”, Journal of the Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity, 47 (546) (2006) 592-596.

20. M. M. R. Howlader, S. Suehara, H. Takagi, T. H. Kim, R. Maeda, and T. Suga, “Room temperature microfluidics packaging using sequential plasma activation process", IEEE Transactions of Advanced Packaging 29(3) (2006) 446-456.

19. M. M. R. Howlader, S. Suehara, and T. Suga, “Room temperature wafer level glass/glass bonding", Sensors and Actuators A127 (2006) 31-36.

18. S. Suehara, M. R. Howlader, and T. Suga, “Low temperature glass wafer bonding with sequential plasma activation”, Transactions of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers C, J88-C(11) 920-927 (2005).

17. M. M. R. Howlader, M. Iwashita, K. Nanbu, K. Saijo, and T. Suga, “Enhanced Cu/LCP adhesion by pre-sputter cleaning prior to Cu deposition", IEEE Transactions of Advanced Packaging 28(3) (2005) 495-502.

16. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, A. Takahashi, K. Saijo, S. Ozawa, and K. Nanbu, “Surface activated bonding of LCP/Cu for electronic packaging", Journal of Materials Science 40 (2005) 3177-3184.

15. Y. Wang, M. M. R. Howlader, K. Nishida, T. Kimura, and T. Suga, "Study on Sn-Ag oxidation and feasibility of room temperature bonding of Sn-Ag-Cu solder", Materials Transactions 40(11), (2005) 2431-2436.

14. M. M. R. Howlader, H. Okada, T. H. Kim, T. Itoh, and T. Suga, “Wafer level surface activated bonding tool for MEMS packaging", Journal of The Electrochemical Society 151 (2004) G461-467.

13. T. H. Kim, M. M. R. Howlader, T. Itoh, and T. Suga, “Room temperature Cu/Cu direct wafer bonding using surface activated bonding method", Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A21(2) (2003) 449-453.

12. T. Higuchi, K. Shiiyama, Y. Izumi, M. M. R. Howlader, M. Kutsuwada, and C. Kinoshita, “Effects of specimen thickness and impurity on the conductivity of alumina under electron irradiation", Journal of Nuclear Materials 307 (2002) 1250-1253.

11. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Watanabe, and T. Suga, “Characterization of the bonding strength and interface current of p-Si/n-InP wafers bonded by surface activated bonding method at room temperature", Journal of Applied Physics 91 (5) (2002) 3062-3066.

10. M. M. R. Howlader, C. Kinoshita, K. Shiiyama, and M. Kutsuwada, “Role of the specimen thickness on the electrical conductivity of alumina under fast electron irradiation", Journal of Applied Physics 92(4) (2002) 1995-1999.

9. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Watanabe, and T. Suga, “Investigation of the bonding strength and interface current of p-Si/n-GaAs wafers bonded by the surface activated bonding method at room temperature", Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 19(6) (2001) 2114-2118.

8. M. M. R. Howlader, C. Kinoshita, K. Shiiyama, and M. Kutsuwada, “Electrical conductivity of Wesgo AL995 alumina under fast electron irradiation in a high voltage electron microscope", Journal of Applied Physics 89(3) (2001) 1612-1618.

7. M. M. R. Howlader, C. Kinoshita, K. Shiiyama, M. Kutsuwada, and T. Higuchi, “Significance of sample thickness and surface segregation on the electrical conductivity of Wesgo AL995 alumina under ITER environments", Journal of Nuclear Materials 89(3) (2000) 885-889.

6. K. Shiiyama, M. M. R. Howlader, Y. Izumi,  M. Kutsuwada, S. Matsumura, and C. Kinoshita, “ Electrical conductivity and current-voltage characteristic of alumina and aluminum nitride with or without electron irradiation", Journal of Nuclear Materials 283-287 (2000) 912-916.

5. M. M. R. Howlader, C. Kinoshita, K. Shiiyama, and M. Kutsuwada, “ Electrical insulating potential of aluminum nitride under irradiation with fast electrons", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 166-167 (2000) 159-164.

4. M. M. R. Howlader, C. Kinoshita, K. Shiiyama, M. Kutsuwada, and Inagaki, “ In-situ meaurements of electrical conductivity of zircalloy oxide films and their mechanism under electron irradiation", Journal of Nuclear Materials 265 (1-2)  (1999) 100-107.

3. K. Shiiyama, M. M. R. Howlader, S. J. Zinkle, T. Shikama, M. Kutsuwada, S. Matsumura, and C. Kinoshita, “Electrical conductivity and current-voltage characteristics of alumina with or without neutron and electron irradiation”, Journal of Nuclear Materials 258-263 (1998) 1848-855.

2. M. M. R. Howlader, C. Kinoshita, K. Shiiyama, M. Kutsuwada, and Inagaki, “ The electrical conductivity of zircalloy oxide films", Journal of Nuclear Materials 253  (1998) 149-155.

1. M. M. R. Howlader, C. Kinoshita, T. Izu, K. Shiiyama, and M. Kutsuwada, “ In-situ measurement of electrical conductivity of alumina under electron irradiation in a high voltage electron microscope", Journal of Nuclear Materials 239 (1996) 245-252.


Proceedings/Conferences


73. (Invited) M. J. Deen and M. M. R. Howlader, "Future Nano- and Micro-systems Using Nanobonding Techniques", International Conference on Nanomaterials 2013,  August 12-16, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada (2013).

72. (Invited) M. M. R. Howlader, "Material Aspects of Fabrication, Bonding, and Packaging for Emerging Applications", Canadian Materials Science Conference, June 4-8, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada (2012).

71. (Invited) M. M. R. Howlader, "Growth of Gallium Arsenide Nanostructures in Silica", 219th ECS Conference, May 1-6, Montreal, Canada (2011).

70. (Key Note) M. J. Deen, M. M. R. Howlader, P. R. Selvaganapthy, and T. Suga, "Nanobonding technologies for emerging applications", International Conference on Electronics Packaging ICEP, April 13-15, 2011, Nara, Japan.

69. Fangfang Zhang, M. M. R. Howlader, and A. Yamauchi, "Surface activated bonding of Si/SiC for high power electronic devices", International Conference on Electronics Packaging ICEP, April 13-15, 2011, Nara, Japan.

68. M. M. R. Howlader, Fangfang Zhang, Jangbae Jeon, and Moon J Kim, "Room Temperature Bonding of Germanium with Gallium Arsenide", International Conference on Electronics Packaging ICEP, April 13-15, 2011, Nara, Japan.

67. Saba Mohtashami, M. M. R. Howlader, Thomas Doyle, and Mehdi Taheri, "Comparative Electrochemical Investigation of Pt, Au and Ti Electrodes on Liquid Crystal Polymer for the Application of Neural Prostheses", 219th ECS Conference, May 1-6, Montreal, Canada (2011).

66. T. Yu, M. M. R. Howlader, F. Zhang, M. Bakr, "Nanobonding for Multi-Junction Solar Cells at Room Temperature", 219th ECS Conference, May 1-6, Montreal, Canada (2011).

65. M. G. Kibria, F. Zhang, K. Cormier, and M. M. R. Howlader, "Surface and interface characterization of sequentially plasma activated silicon, silicon dioxide and germanium wafers for low temperature bonding applications", ECS Conference, October 12-15, Las Vegas, Nevada (2010).

64. M. M. R. Howlader, F. Zhang, M. G. Kibria, T. Suga and A. Yamauchi “Surface Activated Bonding of Copper Through Silicon Vias and Gold Stud Bumps at Low Temperature”, Materials Science & Technology 2010, October 17, Huston, Texas, USA.

63. M. M. R. Howlader, F. Zhang, M. G. Kibria, T. Suga and A. Yamauchi, “Development of Surface Activation Based Nano-Bonding and Interconnect System”, 52nd Annual Electronic Materials Conference, June 23-25, 2010, University of Notre Dame, USA.

62. J. Sun, W. Liang, Y. Gan, Q. Xu, C.-Q. Xu, M. Howlader, N. Koji, and T. Kishimoto, “Annealed Proton-Exchanged LiNbO3 Ridge Waveguide for Photonics Application”, Photonics North, June 1-3, 2010, Niagara Falls, Canada.

61. (Invited) M. M. R. Howlader, “Plasma based surface activated bonding for microelectronic and biomedical systems”, Canadian Association of Physicist (CAP) Congress, June 6-11, 2010.

60. (Invited) M. M. R. Howlader, F. Zhang, M. G. Kibria, T. Suga and A. Yamauchi, “Surface Activated Bonding of Copper Through Silicon Vias and Gold Stud Bumps at Room Temperature”, International Conference on Electronics Packaging ICEP, May 12-14, 2010, Hakkaido, Japan.

59. (Invited) M. M. R. Howlader, “MEMS/microfluidics packaging without heating”, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Photonics West, San Francisco, 23 - 28 January 2010.

58. Matiar Howlader, Hiroyuki Shintani, Tadatomo Suga, Akitsu Shigeto, and Akira Yamauchi, "Development of a new SAB equipment for room temperature bonding", 2nd International IEEE Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Japan, January 19-20, 2010.

57. (Invited) M. M. R. Howlader, “Nanobonding technologies for optoelectronic applications”, 4th International Conference on Computers & Devices for Communication, Kolkata, India, December 14 - 16, 2009.

56. M. G. Kibria, F. Zhang, T. H. Lee, M. J. Kim, and M. M. R. Howlader, “Comprehensive investigation of sequential plasma activated Si/Si bonded interface for nano-integration”, Nano and Giga Challenges in Electronics, Photonics and Renewable Energy and 14th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference, August 10-14, 2009, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

55. (Invited) M. M. R. Howlader, “A surface activation based nanobonding technology for optoelectronics packaging”, 22nd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Turkey, 4 - 8 October 2009.

54. M. M. R. Howlader, M. G. Kibria, Fangfang Zhang and T. Suga, “Quantitative measurement of air-gap of silicon/silicon interfaces”, International Conference on Electronics Packaging ICEP 2009 Meeting, April 14-16, 2009, Kyoto, Japan.

53. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, “Surface activated bonding of 8 in. Si wafers for MEMS and microfluidics packaging” The 59th Electronic Component and Technology Conference, 2009, San Diego, CA, USA.

52. M. M. R. Howlader, “Nano-Bonding for Emerging Systems Integration” International Conference on Electronics Packaging, ICEP 2009 Meeting, June 10-12, 2008, Tokyo, Japan.

51. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, “Surface activated bonding for flexible lamination”, Polytronic 2007 - 6th International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, January 15-18, 2007, Miraikan – Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 271-276.

50. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, "A novel method for bonding of ionic wafer at room temperature", The 56th Electronic Component and Technology Conference, May 30-June 2, 2006, San Diego, CA, USA.

49. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, H. Itoh, M. J. Kim, “Sequential plasma activation process for silicon direct bonding”, 210th Meeting of Electrochemical Society, October 29-November 3, 2006, Cancun, Mexico.

48. M. M. R. Howlader, H. Itoh, T. Suga, “Surface activated bonding method for ionic wafers at low temperature”, International Conference on Electronics Packaging ICEP 2006 Meeting, April 15-17, 2006, Tokyo, Japan.

47. M. Hutter, T. Thomas, R. Jordan, G. Engelmann, H. Oppermann, H. Reichl, Y. Wang, M. Howlader, E. Higurashi, and T. Suga, “Investigation of different flip chip assembly processes using Au/Sn microbumps”, Berlin Center for Advanced Packaging at Technische Universität Berlin, October 5th 2005, München, Germany.

46. Y. Wang, K. Nishida, M. Hutter, M. M. R. Howlader, E. Higurashi, T. Kimura and T. Suga, “Surface activation process of lead-free solder bumps for low temperature bonding”, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electronics Packaging Technology (ICEPT2005), Shenzhen, China, Aug. 30-Sept. 2, 2005.

45. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, M. J. Kim, “Activated process and bonding mechanism of Si/LiNbO3 and LiNbO3/LiNbO3 at room temperature”, The 207th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, May 15-20, 2005, Quebec, Canada, pp. 319-325.

44. M. M. R. Howlader, S. Suehara, H. Takagi, T. H. Kim, R. Maeda, T. Suga, “Sequential plasma activation process for microfluidics packaging at room temperature”, The 55th Electronic Component and Technology Conference 2005, May 31-June 3, 2005, Florida, USA.

43. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, “Bonding processes and mechanisms for ionic and piezoelectric wafers”, International Conference on Electronics Packaging ICEP 2005 Meeting, April 16- 18, 2005, Tokyo, Japan pp. 253-258.

42. H. Li, M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, “Feasibility of surface activated bonding for Au and Sn deposited films”, International Conference on Electronics Packaging ICEP 2005 Meeting, April 16- 18, 2005, Tokyo, Japan pp. 100-105.

41. H. H. Itoh, M. M. R. Howlader, H. Li, T. Suga, M. J. Kim, “Combined process of radical and RIE for Si direct bonding”, International Conference on Electronics Packaging ICEP 2005 Meeting, April 16- 18, 2005, Tokyo, Japan pp. 94-99.

40. Y. Wang, M. M. R. Howlader, K. Okamoto, M. Mizukoshi and T. Suga, “Role of surface roughness on the oxidation and bonding mechanism of Sn-Ag bonding by surface activated bonding method”, International Conference on Electronics Packaging (ICEP2005), Tokyo, Japan, Apr. 13-15, 2005, pp.185-189.

39. H. Ozawa, M. M. R. Howlader, M. Satou, H. Ozaki and T. Suga, “Oxidation behavior of lead free solder bumps and their bonding characteristics”, 14th Micro Electronics Symposium (MES) of Japan Institute for Electronics Packaging, 14-15 October 2004, Osaka, Japan.

38. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Suga, and Moon J Kim, “Wafer level and chip size direct wafer bonding at room temperature”, 206th Electrochemical Society Meeting, 3-8 October 2004, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

37. (Invited) M. M. R. Howlader, and T. Suga, “Surface activated bonding for microelectronics and MEMS packaging”, The Electrochemical Society International Semiconductor Technology Conference, 15-17 September 2004, Shanghai, China.

36. M. M. R. Howlader, K. Nanbu, T. Saizou, and T. Suga, “Lamination and de-lamination processes for Cu/LCP for electronic packaging”, The Eleventh International Conference on Intergranular and Inetrphase Boundaries, 25-29 July 2004, Belfast, Ireland.

35. S. Suehara, M. M. R. Howlader, T. H. Kim, and T. Suga, “Surface activated bonding for wafer scale glass/glass integration”, The Electrochemical Society International Semiconductor Technology Conference, 15-17 September 2004, Shanghai, China.

34. Y. Wang, M. M. R. Howlader, N. Hosoda, K. Okamoto, T. Suga, and M. Mizukoshi, “Surface activated bonding for Sn-Ag and their oxidation mechanism”, The Electrochemical Society International Semiconductor Technology Conference, 15-17 September 2004, Shanghai, China.

33. T. Suga, T. H. Kim, M. M. R. Howlader, “Combined process for wafer direct bonding by means of the surface activation method”, The 54nd Electronic Component and Technology Conference 2004, June 1-4, 2004, Las Vegas, USA, pp 484-490.

32. M. M. R. Howlader, T. H. Kim, and T. Suga, “MEMS packaging using room temperature wafer bonding”, The 4th International Conference on Alternative Substrate Technology, 21-25 March 2004, Chamonix, France.

31. T. H. Kim, M. M. R. Howlader, and T. Suga, “Sequential activation process for silicon direct bonding”, The 4th International Conference on Alternative Substrate Technology, 21-25 March 2004, Chamonix, France.

30. M. M. R. Howlader, and T. Suga, “Room temperature MEMS packaging using low energy ion activation”, The 18th Japanese Institute for Electronics Packaging Conference, 17-19 March 2004, Tokyo, Japan.

29. T. H. Kim, M. M. R. Howlader, and T. Suga, “Room temperature silicon direct bonding using sequential activation process”, The 18th Japan Institute for Electronics Packaging Conference, 17-19 March 2004, Tokyo, Japan.

28. M. M. R. Howlader, M. Iwashita, K. Nanbu, T. Saijo, and T. Suga, “Bonding mechanism of Cu and LCP”, The 3rd International IEEE Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, 20-23 October 2003, Montreux, Switzerland, pp. 243-249.

27. M. M. R. Howlader, H. Okada, T.H. Kim, T. Itoh, and T. Suga, “Development of an UHV surface activated bonding machine for MEMS packaging”, The 203rd Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, April 27- May 2, 2003, Paris, France.

26. T.H. Kim, M. M. R. Howlader, T. Itoh, and T. Suga,  “Wafer scale surface activated bonding of silicon, silicon oxide and copper at low temperature”, The 203rd Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, April 27- May 2, 2003, Paris, France.

25. (Best Paper) M. M. R. Howlader, T.H. Kim, T. Nara, and T. Suga, “Low temperature bonding of Si to Si, glass and Quartz wafers by surface activated bonding process”, International Conference on Electronics Packaging ICEP 2003 Meeting, April 16- 18, 2003, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 41-46.

24. T.H. Kim, M. M. R. Howlader, and T. Suga,  “Low temperature Si direct bonding using plasma assisted method”, International Conference on Electronics Packaging ICEP 2003 Meeting, April 16- 18, 2003, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 30-35.

23. H. Okada, T. Nara, M. M. R. Howlader, H. Takagi, R. Maeda, T. Itoh, T. Suga, “Sealing using surface activated bonding method”, The 16th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Prague, Czech Republic, Sept 15-18, (2002) pp 264-267.

22. T. Suga, Atsushi Takahashi, M. M. R. Howlader, Kinji Saijo, Shinji Oosawa, “A lamination technique of LCP/Cu for electronic packaging”, The 2nd International IEEE Conference on Polymers and Adhesive in Microelectronics and Photonics, June 23-25, 2002, Zalaesgerzeg, Hungary, pp.177-182.

21. Q. Wang, Z. Xu, M. M. R. Howlader, T. Itoh, T. Suga, “Reliability and microstructure of Au-Al and Au-Cu direct bonding fabricated by the surface activated bonding”, The 52nd Electronic Component and Technology Conference 2002, Santiago, USA, pp 915-919.

20. H. Okada, T. Nara, M. M. R. Howlader, H. Takagi, R. Maeda, T. Itoh, T. Suga, “Application of surface activated bonding to MEMS packaging”, The MSE Workshop; Key Issues for Commercialization of MEMS, 3rd Asian Workshop of MEMS-PKG, 1st Pacific Rim Meeting of Techno-Linkage of Microfabrication, , AIST, Tsukuba, Japan, Feb. 20-22, (2002) pp 85-88.

19. T. H. Kim, M. M. R. Howlader, T. Itoh, T. Suga, “Oxygen plasma activated silicon direct bonding in PECVD mode”, International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (SSDM 2001), Tokyo, Japan, 2001, pp .

18. T. H. Kim, M. M. Howlader, T. Itoh, and T. Suga, “Low temperature direct Cu-Cu bonding with low energy ion activation method”, The 3rd International Symposium on Electronics Materials and Packaging (EMAP2001), Jeju Island, Korea, 2001, pp.193-195.

17. M. M. R. Howlader, A. Shigetou, T. Itoh, and T. Suga, “A revolutionary process for Microsystems integration”, The Annual Paper Meet and International Conference arranged by Institute of Engineers of Bangladesh (IEB), January 11-12, 2001, Rajshahi, Bangladesh, pp 37-45.

16. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Watanabe, and T. Suga, “Investigation of the bonding strength and electrical characteristics of Si/Si, Si/InP and Si/GaAs interfaces bonded by surface activated bonding at room temperature and the influence of sputtering time and energy”, The 200th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, September 2-7, 2001, San Francisco, USA.

15. M. M. R. Howlader, T. Watanabe, and T. Suga, “Bonding of p-Si/n-InP wafers through surface activated bonding method at room temperature”, The 13th international conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), 14-18 May 2001, Nara, Japan, pp 272-275.

14. T. Suga, M. M. R. Howlader, T. Itoh, C. Inaka, Y. Arai, A. Yamaguchi, “A new wafer bonder of ultra-high precision using surface activated bonding (SAB) concept”, The 51st Electronic Component and Technology Conference 2001, May 29-June 1, Florida, USA, pp 1013-1018.

13. T. Suga, T. Itoh, and M. M. R. Howlader,  “An 8-inch wafer bonding apparatus with ultra-high alignment accuracy using surface activated bonding (SAB) concept”, International Conference on Transducers, 2001, Germany, pp . 222.

12. T. Higuchi, K. Shiiyama, Y. Izumi, M. M. R. Howlader, C. Kinoshita, M. Kutsuwada, “In-situ measurements of electrical conductivity of undoped and Cr3+alumina under electron irradiation”, The 6th China-Japan Seminar on Materials for Advanced Energy systems and Fission and Fusion Engineering, December 2000.

11. M. M. R. Howlader, C. Kinoshita, K. Shiiyama, M. Kutsuwada, “Significance of sample thickness and surface segregation on the electrical conductivity of poly-and single crystalline alumina under ITER environments”, The 9th Int. Conf. Fusion Reactor Materials (ICFRM-9), October, 1999, Colorado Spring, USA.

10. K. Shiiyama, M. M. R. Howlader, Y. Izumi, M. Kutsuwada, S. Matsumura, C. Kinoshita, “Current-voltage characteristics of alumina and aluminum nitride with or without electron irradiation”, The ICFRM-9, October, 1999, Colorado Spring, USA.

9. M. M. R. Howlader, C. Kinoshita, K. Shiiyama, “Electrical insulating potentials and limitations of ceramic insulators under radiation environments”, The 10th International Conference on Radiation Effects in Insulators (REI-10) July, 1999.

8. M. M. R. Howlader, K. Shiiyama, M. Kutsuwada, C. Kinoshita, “Electrical conductivity of zircaloy oxide films and formation mechanism of oxide films”, The 123rd Japan Institute of Metals (JIM) Meeting, September 1998.

7. M. M. R. Howlader, K. Shiiyama, M. Kutsuwada, C. Kinoshita, “Dependence of sample thickness on the electrical conductivity of alumina under electron irradiation”, The JIM Meeting, June 1998.

6. M. M. R. Howlader, K. Shiiyama, M. Kutsuwada, C. Kinoshita, “In-situ measurements of electrical conductivity of zircaloy oxide films and their formation mechanism under electron irradiation”, The ICFRM-8, October, 1997, Sendai, Japan.

5. K. Shiiyama, M. M. R. Howlader, S. J. Zinkle, T. Shikama, M. Kutsuwada, S. Matsumura, C. Kinoshita, “Electrical conductivity and current-voltage characteristics of alumina with and without neutron and electron irradiation”, The ICFRM-8, October, 1997, Sendai, Japan.

4. M. M. R. Howlader, C. Kinoshita, K. Shiiyama and H. Nakamichi, "Electrical conductivity of ceramic insulators and zircaloy oxide films under irradiation", The China-Japan Seminar on Fission and Fusion Materials, (1996) p. 114.

3. M. M. R. Howlader, K. Shiiyama, M. Kutsuwada, S. Matsumura, C. Kinoshita, “Electrical conductivity of zircaloy oxide films and formation mechanism of oxide films under electron irradiation”, The Japan Atomic Energy Commission Conference, September. 1996.

2. M. M. R. Howlader, K. Shiiyama, M. Kutsuwada, S. Matsumura, C. Kinoshita, “Electrical conductivity of zircaloy oxide films and formation mechanism of oxide films”, The JIM Kyushu Branch Meeting, June 1996.

1. (Best Poster) M. M. R. Howlader, T. Izu, K. Shiiyama, M. Kutsuwada, C. Kinoshita, “In-situ measurements of electrical conductivity of alumina under electron irradiation in a high voltage electron microscope”, The JIM ’94 Fall Annual Meeting (117th) in Hawaii, Dec. 1995.